||Sometimes poverty is caused by what happens in the pre-harvest system. Please indicate the key features, events, or activities that may cause stress to the pre-harvest system (or natural ecosystem), contributing eventually to poverty.
Sometimes poverty is caused by what happens in the pre-harvest system. Please indicate the key features, events, or activities that may cause stress to the pre-harvest system (or natural ecosystem), contributing eventually to poverty.
||Sometimes poverty is directly linked to what happens in the harvest system (which include capture and aquaculture). Please indicate the key characteristics, activities, events, issues that are understood as main causes/drivers to poverty.
||Poverty could also be due to things that happen in the post-harvest sector (e.g., processing, marketing, etc.). Please indicate the key
||In some instances, poverty could be due to reasons not related to fisheries. We call it governance, but it can also be issues related to
(Pearl Lagoon, Caribbean Coast)
|‘Agricultural frontier’ brings intensive agriculture farming into the area, causing problems such as run-offs and waste.
Highly diverse system, but main fisheries are lobster.
|Increasing pressure from new entrants (from farming) into the fishery.
Use of new gears (monofilament gillnets instead of handline and cast nets/hand nets.
Loss of ability to combine fishing with farming due to the encroachment of their communal land resulted from the agricultural frontier (pressure on fisheries is high all year instead of seasonally).
Lack of non-fishing alternative livelihood options.
|Lack of control on prices and no bargaining power due to limited market access.
Lack of MCS.
Fishers lack awareness about the regulations or management.
Drug trafficking ('white ladies') and consequential social problems.
(Lake Victoria, two communities: Wakerewe and Kakseru)
|Reliance on three key species (Nile perch, tilapia and sardines).
||Changing of gears from traditional basket traps, simple gillnets and hand paddled boats to modernized and motorized boats such as drift nets ('teambea'), and longer and wider gillnets, as well as increasing fishing time (# of fishing days and the amount of time the nets are in the water).
New entrants (non-riparian communities).
Some inshore fishers become crew members of the offshore fleet (increasing vulnerability due to lack of job security).
Use of illegal fishing techniques.
|Dependency on the middlemen (or 'agents') through loans, thus having to accept low fish prices.
Catches are for sale (as cash crop), not for domestic consumption
|Low education among fishers (no need to go to school when you can make money from fishing).
Open access fishery as part of the tradition that allows everyone to have the basic right and access to fish to feed his family.
Lack of reports from fishers on violations and illegal methods.
Ineffective co-management scheme (Beach Management Units).
HIV infection problem.
|Dependency on a single species, Hilsha, which is seasonal (only available to fishing for four months).
Cyclones and sea storm prone area.
|Fishing is seasonal and risky due to rough sea conditions.
Use of damaging gears such as set bag nets (non-selective with the small mesh size); illegal fishing practicies such as during the breeding season, collection of fry, seaweeds and corals; and targetting of protected species and bycatches.
Target of short-lived and small-sized fish.
Increasing number of fishers and duration of fishing per unit area.
Fishing grounds used also by large-scale fisheries sector (especially trawlers) causing conflicts and increasing pressure.
|Poor transportation system limits access to markets.
Dependency on the money lender (dadondar) and informal credit (due to lack of property that can be used as asset in the formal credit market).
|Lack of options means that fishers take risks that sometimes result in death.
Loss of gears, boats, livestocks and household assets, as well as paddy fields and other food sources due to cyclones and other disaster.
Fishers lack skills to do other things.
Fishers are landless (i.e., no livelihood options).
High level of illness among fishers, caused by water-borne diseases and lack of sanitation.
Problem with piracy (including kidnap for ransom).
Fishers lack organization (cannot join the cooperative due to high fee).
NGOs not paying attention to coastal fishing communities.
Illiteracy among fishers and their children (due partly to poor road condition and long distance to schools).
Women (playing important role in processing and marketing) suffer social discrimation such as low wage (half of what men get) and cheating.
(Thanh Phong fishing commune, Ben Tre province)
|Fishing season is the most convenient from March to August. The other months are often suffered from northeast wind and storm.
Machine/engine and equipment on vessels are old so that they consume a lot of fuel and have been repaired many times a year.
It is hard to buy a big vessel for catching offshore because of the formal credit market is rather limited in comparison with demand of fishers.
Lack of control on input prices and no bargaining power due to limited market access.
|Declining inshore resources.
Use of destructive gears such as net with the very small mesh size, electric net.
Catching all year round, of course during the breeding season, collection of fry.
|Very poor infrastructure system limits access to markets.
Fishers borrow a sum of money from middlemen in advance. And then they will pay fish for middlemen, thus having to accept low fish prices (no bargaining/negotiating power)
|Not apply community-based fishery management/co-management yet.
Low education among fishers (no need to go to school when they can make money from fishing).
Poor public transportation system (the children's education is strongly affected).
Fishers lack awareness of the fishery regulations/management.
The government has banned the use of destructive gears, however its enforcement is still week since fishmen are very poor and could not transfer to other jobs.
Fishers are landless (i.e., no livelihood alternatives).