Book preparation

Preparation for PovFish meeting in Tanzania, October 14-17 2009

This meeting is meant to be a step on the way to our final outcome, which is the book to be presented at the World Small-Scale Fisheries Congress in Bangkok in October next year.  

Expected outcomes: We expect the meeting to have a workshop character. That means that we shall allocate sufficient time so that we can go thoroughly into each others paper contribution. We expect everyone to be prepared so that they can participate in the discussion of the papers. Advance comments in writing are appreciated. 

It is important that you prepare a written paper and not just a power point. We do not expect a polished, ready to be published article but a preliminary but complete draft (see below for content outline). 

This should be distributed and uploaded on our web site by no later than October 5. That will give everyone the opportunity to read the paper in advance. For each presentation one participant will be asked to present a critical review. 

We need to have a paper title and an abstract by September 1. These will be uploaded on our web site, and form the basis for the detailed program.  

For the book, which is the main delivery specified in the contract with the Norwegian Research Council and with each of you, your contribution is one chapter. However, we understand that several of you through this project funding have collected a lot of material that may have given you ideas and inspiration for several papers. From a project perspective this is great, provided that your other papers contain sufficiently different data and information from what is presented in your chapter. You may send these other contributions to journals etc. of your own choice. We would appreciate, though, that you would acknowledge the contribution of the PovFish project sponsored by the Poverty and Peace Program of the Norwegian Research Council. This would not only make our project look good, but also make it easier for us to provide more funding in the future. 

Before we go into the details of the paper outline, just let us wish you the best for your preparations. We are really looking forward to see you again. And if you have any question or comment, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Best wishes,
Svein, also on behalf of us Arne and Kristoffer.


Paper outline:

Below is a rough sketch of how the paper should look like:

The paper is meant to be a book chapter, which means that it is part of a larger totality. Some standardisation is preferable and there cannot be too many repetitions. Still, some variation to the standard outline is OK given the diversity of contributions and disciplines within our team.  

Rule 1: The overall research question should not be repeated in detail in every chapter, but only hinted at. Do not include the model as presented on our web site.

Rule 2: You should not present a full review of all the literature on small-scale fisheries and poverty. You should rather concentrate on the literature of your particular “stream” and how it relates to the overall project framework and your particular research question. The broader focus and the model are something we will present in an introductory chapter. Yours should be more specific. It should be empirical with a theoretical perspective and contribution.

The paper should be from 25 to 30 pages, double spaced, letter size 12 –like a normal social science conference paper.

Abstract – max 250 words.

Say something on what study you have conducted, which method you applied, which data   you gathered, what your main argument is and what your key concept(s) and findings are.

Introduction – no more than two pages. 

A few introductory information on empirical context, what theoretical discourse you see your paper to be part of. Specify what your research question, and what the main hypotheses are, and let it be clear how it relates to the overall PovFish focus and framework. A road map describing the content of the paper should be included at the end of this section.

Theory section: No more than three pages

The idea here is to reflect hypothetically on potential answers to your research question. A pointed and relevant review of research literature would be in order. Explain how your own paper is a contribution. Focus on your chosen model stream.

Methods section – no more than one pages.

Say something on what data you will present and how and where you collected them and what quality they hold

Empirical section – no more than  15 pages

Present your findings in the form that you would like but don’t overload your paper with figures, tables and equations. It doesn’t hurt if you try to tell a story in a way that is exciting for the reader. Follow the need-to-know principle (from your research question) and not the nice-to-know principle.

Discussion - no more than 7 pages.

Here you should reflect on your findings, what they mean from the general/theoretical perspective presented in section 3. What do your findings bring to that discourse? Think about what the reader learn from your case study (other than about the site where you conducted your research 

Conclusion: No more than 2 pages:

Return to the research question and hypotheses as described in the Introduction.  Give a short summary of your findings as a way of answering it. How do you see your contribution? You should ay something about policy implication and further research.


To save our selves time and frustration, we suggest the following referring style (drawn the journal “Fish and Fisheries):

Scientific names
On first mention of each organism in text, tables or figure legends, give common name, scientific name and family, e.g. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, Gadidae). Thereafter the common name will ordinarily suffice. See for example these books (or later editions): American Fisheries Society Special Publications 20, Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States and Canada, Fifth Edition, and 21, World Fishes Important to North Americans, and Nelson, J.S. (1994) Fishes of the World, Third Edition, Wiley, New York. When questions arise, Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (1998) Catalog of Fishes, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, will ordinarily be used for spelling of scientific names of fishes (and for authority of species if used).

Use Harvard style. Cite references by name and date, e.g. Lowe-McConnell (1987), Trumble et al. (1993). Use a, b etc. to distinguish papers from the same author(s) in the same year, e.g. Hughes (1996b).

List references in the text chronologically. Arrange the reference list alphabetically by the first-named author. Ensure that each reference cited is in the reference list.

It is most important that references be complete, fully accurate, retrievable and exactly in the Journal's style. Give the full titles of papers, chapters and books. First and last page numbers should be given if referencing a contribution to a larger work. Indicate the number of pages in theses, reports, etc. Give journal titles in full. Common reference formats are:

Author, A.B. (2000) Book Title in Italics with Upper-case Initials to Nouns etc., 2nd edn (Series Title, Vol. 24). Publisher, City.
Author, A.B. (2001a) Chapter title in full. In: Book Title in Italics, Vol. 1. Subtitle also in Italics (eds J.K. Editor and L.M. Editor), 2nd edn. Publisher, City, pp. 000-000.
Author, A.B. (2001b) Full title of symposium contribution. In: Title of Symposium Volume in Italics (Proceedings of the Full and Exact Name of Symposium, City, 00 Month-00 Month, Year). F.X. Editor, ed. Publisher, City, pp. 000-000.
Author, A.B. (2001c) Thesis title in italics with important capitals only. PhD thesis, University of Wherever, 000 pages.
Author, A.B. and Author, C.D. (1999) Title of article. Full Journal Title in Italics 00, 000-000. [In Japanese.]
Author, A.B., Author, CD., Author, E.F. et al. [if more than 7] (2002) Title of article. Full Journal Title in Italics (in press).
Author, C.D. (1997) Title of ICES document. ICES CM 1997/C 20, 22 pp.
Author, C.D. (1998) Title of published report. Occasional Technical Report of Fisheries Science No. 00, 000 pp. [for complete report] or No. 00, 000-000.

Cite unpublished items as 'in press' only if they are formally accepted for publication. Call items in preparation or submitted, but not yet formally accepted, 'unpublished data', and do not include them in the reference list. Do not cite internal reports, contract reports, conference abstract booklets or other difficult-to-obtain material; if this is unavoidable, give a full, current address from which the document may be obtained.

Websites may be ephemeral, e.g. if their originator changes jobs. Cite them sparingly, stating the date of latest access.

Cite personal communications as such in the text (F.G. Colleague, personal communication). Obtain a letter of permission to include their work as a personal communication, and submit it with your final manuscript.

We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.

EndNote reference styles can be searched for here:

Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

Tables and figures
Cite tables or figures in the text in order of appearance, using Arabic numerals: Table 3, Fig. 1. Include them at the end of the document and do not embed them in the text (see Main text, above). Ensure that they are understandable without reference to the text.

Tables: Please supply these double-spaced in 11 or 12 point type (no small print anywhere). Put each on a separate page or pages (do not photoreduce). Start each with a table number and short caption. Arrange values to be compared in columns, not rows. Align numerical values on the decimal point. Use the tabulator, not the space bar, to arrange entries. Keep the maximum width to 100 characters, including spaces. Do not include boxes, horizontal or vertical lines: use extra white space for clarity between columns or rows. Place units in parentheses in the column heads. Use footnotes to explain abbreviations, statistical findings, etc. Do not use fancy lettering, shading or other decorative flourishes.

Figures: Please save or export your figures as EPS (except for files containing scanned content, see below). Colour figures should be saved in CYMK rather than RGB. Graphics saved using the 'normal' save process of the software program in its native format may not be convertible or readable by the publisher. Please see the detailed instructions on submission of illustrations at If it is not possible to supply figures digitally, please submit three high-quality originals of each figure in hard copy and mark lightly on the back with its number and your name(s). Do not make figures larger than 150 × 250 mm without first consulting the Editors.

Where materials have been scanned to produce images, the scanning resolution should be as follows to ensure adequate reproduction: >800 d.p.i. for line art; >300 d.p.i. for half-tones (including gel photographs). Files including scanned content should be saved as TIFF files.

Submit photographs and photomicrographs as unmounted glossy prints; do not retouch. Put labelling, including scale bars, on an overlay or photocopy unless you can letter to publication standard. Use scale bars on figures, not magnifications in legends. Make labels, arrows, etc., contrast clearly with their background.